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Sentence patterns and function word index
Approximately 108 sentence patterns and expressions. The numbers in the brackets refer to lesson numbers.
Abbreviations and additions (11/13)
A balanced number of syllables in a phrase is important in written Chinese. Sometimes a syllable in a word can be omitted in order to form the abbreviated expression desired. Syllables can also be added to a word to form an expression, as shown in the following sentence which contains the co-verb 搭 乘 take a certain form of transport and the resultative verb phrase 飞 抵 to arrive by flying in 搭 乘 华 航 班 机 飞 抵 台 北 arrived in Taipei on a China Air flight. As the word 华 航 China Air after 搭 乘 to take has two syllables, it would be desirable if the verb 搭 were attached to another syllable 乘. Similarly, the place name 台 北 Taipei after the resultative verb 抵 arrive has two syllables, therefore the verb 抵 has another syllable, as in 飞 抵.
Alternatively, these additional syllables can be removed if needed. For instance, the verb 搭 in the article is used differently, sometimes on its own as in 搭 机 抵 台 (a desirable four-character expression) and sometimes with another syllable as in 搭乘. Please see Newspaper reading tips below.
The following sentences have abbreviated elements. Can you identify these elements? Do you know why they are abbreviated?
也 可 共 同 发 展
两 市 间 两 岸 间
Adverbial marker de 地 (8)
The adverbial marker地 is used to describe the manner in which an action is carried out. For instance,
we have to discuss this issue seriously.
…bĭ…比, the comparative construction (6)
This year it has increased by 37.3% compared with the same period last year.
bùbĭ 不 比 NOT SAME AS …, UNLIKE, NOT AS GOOD AS…
不 比 NOT SAME AS …, UNLIKE, NOT AS GOOD AS…
不 比 is the negative form of 比and used as a comparative construction. However, sometimes不 比 is similar to不 如. 不 如is placed between phrase A and phrase B. This construction implies that the situation in phrase A is not as good as it is in B. Either A or B can be abbreviated. For instance,
China’s economic power is not as great as that of the US.
bùguăn…huò… 不 管 … 或 NOT MATTER …OR… (14)
或 is short for 或 者. Another similar expression is 不 管 …还 是 … For instance,
No matter whether it is raining of snowing we will definitely come to the class.
Many co-verbs are verbs in Chinese, but some of them, such as 为 and 被, can only be used as co-verbs in modern Chinese.
Sequence is very important in Chinese when it comes to describing actions. The first action should come first. For example, I went to China by airplane. You have to think that the action of (坐) taking the airplane happens before going to China, therefore by airplane (坐飞 机 ) should be placed before went to China (去中 国). If you want to say I go to school by car it is understood by a Chinese person that you have to take the car before you can reach school, so by car (坐汽车 ) should be placed before go to school（去学 校）.
As you can see from the above examples, a co-verb is followed by a noun to form a co-verb clause.
bă 把 used as a co-verb (7)
A verb in the 把 construction changes the form, situation or direction of the object. A verb in the 把 construction is in complex form. It is usually a verb of method of action plus another element. The elements which can be attached to the main verbs in 把 sentences are:
We should put our energy on work.
He has already taken the book in.
得 (complement of degree) constructions
You didn’t do this job very well.
一下 (or 一 verb)
Please do this exercise once more.
cóng…(V)dào… 从…(V)到 … FROM … TO… (7)
This construction is used to indicate a sequence of actions. Like the other co-verb constructions, a 从…clause is followed by a main verb clause, in this case (V) 到.
Walk to school from home.
jiāng将 used as a co-verb (8)
将 can also be used as a co-verb like 把. It is often used in written Chinese, but 把 can be used in both written and colloquial Chinese. All the rules which apply to把 also apply to将. For instance,
Our school sends its best students to China to study.
yóu…dào由…V到 FROM …TO… (8)
This construction is similar to 从 …V到 … which creates an idea of distance. 由 could be followed by a time word, number or place word. For instance,
From 60,000 people increased to 80,000 people.
wèi 为 FOR… used as a co-verb (8)
为 is followed by a noun or V-O pattern to form a co-verb clause. A main verb is often placed after a co-verb clause. For instance,
The member states provide troops for this army.
xiàng 向used as a co-verb (9)
When 向is used as a co-verb, it means towards, to or from. 向 is followed by a noun or a noun clause to form a co-verb clause. For instance,
When Chinese people want go abroad, they can apply for passports from the Public Security Bureau.
…chéng 成, e.g., 四 成 40%
Percentage in Chinese is often described by the word 成. One 成 is 10%, four成 means 40%. 45% will be 四成半 four 10% and half.
chéng…(qūshì)呈…(趋势) APPEAR…TENDENCY (6)
The description of the tendency is placed between 呈and 趋势. For instance,
China’s population growth rate shows a tendency to rise.
chúle…yĭwài 除 了… (以) 外APART FROM… (10)
The person or the action after apart from is placed between 除了 and 以外. Very often 以 or 以外 is omitted, especially in the spoken language. The clause after 除了...以外 often consists of the following adverbs:
Apart from tea, China does not export anything.
Apart from exporting tea, China also imports tea.
Apart from exporting tea China also exports grains.
Apart from exporting tea last year, China exported tea again this year.
chūyú…出于 ARISE FROM… (7)
出于 is short for 出自于. It is often placed after a subject and followed by a noun. For instance,
The teacher feels that it is his responsibility to ask you to do this exercise.
Comparative [also see …bĭ…比]: stative verb + 于 (3)
This is a written type of comparative construction. For instance:
The Chinese population is larger than Britain’s.
Conditional sentence rúguŏ…dehuà … jiù 如 果 …的 话, 就… (3)
A conditional clause is placed between 如 果 and 的 话, though 的 话 can be omitted. The outcome of the condition is placed in the 就 clause. 就 is an adverb, which should be placed before verbs. For instance,
If pupils take drugs after school, their parents should let the teachers know.
However, abbreviated forms of this construction are frequently used in newspapers. For instance, the above sentence can also be written in the following ways:
1 Without 果: 如 …的 话, 就…
2 Without 的 话: 如 果… 就…
3 Without 就 : 如 果… 的 话, …
dá 达 REACH (15)
达 is followed by a number word. For instance,
There are over 2000 participants in the meeting.
dāng shí 当时 AT THAT TIME (16)
当时is used as a time word, placed before verbs or subjects of sentences. For instance,
At that time we did not notice the action at all.
de 的 marker for describing nouns (1)
The marker 的 is used to form a clause which describes a noun. The marker 的is placed between the description and the noun. This construction is like an inverted relative clause in English For instance,
The things which they can learn at home are numerous.
As you can see, the clause of description which they can learn at home is placed before the marker 的, and this is followed by the noun things.
yín qĭ zhēngyì deshì…引 起 议 论 的 是 THE THING ABOUT WHICH PEOPLE ARE TALKING IS (15)
The noun is omitted in the verb clause + 的 是construction. The verb clause clarifies the noun which is omitted. For instance,
The thing I want to talk about is …,
The thing to which we should pay attention is…
…dĭ 底 END OF… (6)
底 is placed after 年or月 as in 年底 the end of the year, 月底 the end of the month, 2000年(年) 底 the end of 2000, 十月底 the end of October.
duì 对 clause (4)
It means TO (THIS)… The 对 clause is used as a co-verb clause in sentences to bring a topic before the verb. Modal verbs such as 应该, 能are placed before the 对clause. For instance,
We should launch a political campaign to oppose unhealthy work practice.
Without 对 clause the above sentences will be:
ér 而 YET (8/13)
而 can be used to link two clauses opposite in meaning as in 华而不实 magnificent, yet not practical. 而 is an adverb and is placed before the verb in the second clause of a sentence. 英 美 两 国 都 有 相 同 的 看 法 ， 而 法 国 的 立 场 并 不 一 样
Britain and the US have similar views, but France has a different standpoint.
伟 大 而 艰 巨 的 任 务
a great yet tough task.
…fāng …方 SIDE. (5)
方 is placed after a monosyllabic word:
The Western world.
The British side.
The enemy side.
Four-character expressions (11/13)
A four-character phrase is desirable in a title. Such phrases are formed in the following ways.
two pairs of two-syllable nouns
a two-syllable verb with a two-syllable noun
two sets of V-O in sequence destroy old, establish new
a two-syllable adverb with a two-syllable verb
a two-syllable noun with a two-syllable stative verb
A commonly used four-character expression is formed from two double-syllable expressions, such as 排名第三 pecking order number three [lit. number three on the line]. The phrase is formed by two double character expressions: 排名 pecking order 第三 number three. 销量大增 the number (of copies) being sold increases in large scale. The phrase is formed by a double-syllable noun 销量 and followed by a combined two-syllable phrase (adverb大large and verb 增 increase).
…fŏu …否: 是否/能否 ... WHETHER... OR NOT (5)
是, 有and most monosyllabic modal verbs can be placed before 否 to form a choice type expression. For example, 是否 whether ... is... or not, 有否 whether... have... or no, 会 否 whether... will... or not, 应 否 whether... should... or not.
Whether these students can graduate or not, depends on their academic results.
gāi 该 (4)
该 means THE ABOVE MENTIONED, THE AFOREMENTIONED. It is often followed by a noun. For instance,
Yunnan University carried out an anti-drug campaign. The teachers and students of the aforementioned university are...
(gēn)jù…(根)据 ACCORDING TO (6)
据is short for 根据. A根据clause is followed by a main clause. For instance,
According to the experts’ analysis, the China/Taiwan conflict will be solved within 10 years.
huà 化 ..ISE, …ISATION (16)
It means to turn one situation or thing into another, Normally it is preceded by a noun or monosyllable stative verb.
To realise the 4 modernizations.
To deepen the reforms.
jí即 NAMELY (7)
即 is used to indicate a detailed or specific explanation. The explanation is placed after
即. For instance,
China’s reform policy, namely the economic reform policy, has had some success.
jì…yĕ… 既 …也… construction (4)
It means BOTH... AND / AS WELL AS
The clauses in the 既... 也 ... construction are normally parallel in sense. 既 and 也 are placed before verbs or stative verbs.
The thing which we learned were not very easy, we cannot even use them after learning them.
jiāng 将 WILL (6)
将 is used as an auxiliary verb. It implies that the action that follows will take place in future. For instance,
China will set up economic union with other Asian countries.
jìnxíng 进 行 TO CARRY OUT (5)
This sentence pattern is frequently used in newspapers. The nouns preceded by 进 行 are used as verbs in sentences: words such as 讨 论 to discuss and discussion, 发 展 to develop and development, 谈 判 to negotiate and negotiation are often seen after the verb 进 行. When you learn a new word which is preceded by 进 行, you should remember it as a phrase: for example,
Carry out negotiations
Carry out developments
jīng (guò) 经 (过)clause (4)
经 is short for 经 过 AS A RESULT OF (Lit. TO GO THROUGH, PASS). It is similar to another expression 通 过tōngguò. The elements which are followed by 经or经 过can be verbs, nouns, or nouns with attributives. Usually these elements or phrases imply sustained actions.
A经or 经 过 clause is often followed by a clause which contains the main verb of sentence:
After much hard work, he completed his novel last summer.
Without 经 过 clause the above sentences will be:
jiù 就 used for emphasis (8)
就 can be placed before the linking verb是 to reinforce a statement. For instance,
Our aim it to learn Chinese well.
就 CONCERNING (10)
就 is used to bring a topic to readers’ attention. The topic is placed after 就 to form a clause. The 就 clause can either be placed before the subject of a sentence or before a main verb. A verb-object phrase is preceded by the 就 clause. 进行 is one of the most commonly used verbs in this construction. The verb 进行 is followed by a noun which consists of a verb meaning such as 讨论 discussion / discuss．发展 develop/ development. For instance,
We carried out a serious discussion on the scholarship issue.
The Chinese and British Governments carried out discussions on the draft H.K. Basic Law.
Time word + 就V 了 …AS EARLY AS (time word) (15)
就 can be placed after a time word, and before the verb, to comment on the time, which is earlier than expected.
he came to school as early as nine o'clock.
Compare this with
he came to school at 9.
jù 据 (據) (9)
据 is short for 根 据 (see above gēn), and is followed by a verb such as:
据 信 lit. according to what was believed. It was believed…
据 说 lit. according what was said. It was said…
据 透 露 lit. according what was disclosed. It was revealed…
据 报 lit. according to what was reported. It was reported…
láizì来 自COME FROM (15)
来 come 自 from. It is used in formal written Chinese. For instance, 来自中国 … come from China. Colloquially this expression can be found as 从中国来, where 从 is used as a co-verb.
lián…yĕ… 连…也… construction EVEN… (13)
This is one of the constructions used to highlight a noun, a noun clause or a v-o pattern. The highlighted word or clause can be the subject or object of a sentence and is placed after 连. 都 or 也 are placed before the main verb of the sentence. The difference between 都 and 也 is that 都 can be used in both the affirmative and negative, while 也 is normally used before negatives or before verbs which have a negative sense.
He has even forgotten to go to sleep.
Even the good students don't go to class.
le 了 particle used for completed action (2)
When the particle了 is placed after a verb, it implies that the action is complete. A verb before the particle 了 is usually the main verb of a sentence. For instance,
My teacher made a speech at the meeting.
le 了particle for completed action is not used (2)
When direct or indirect speech is used, 了 is not used after the verb “to speak”. For instance,
The person in charge announced that 16 criminals would be arrested immediately.
Particle 了 for completed action is not used after the verb 宣 布, to announce
le 了 Modal particle indicate the change of situation (3)
When the particle 了 is placed at end of a clause or sentence, it has many implications. One of the implications is a change of situation. For instance:
Now we are not going to China.
Linking verb shì是 (1)
The linking verb 是is used to connect two nouns or pronouns.
He is a student.
lìngwài 另外 APART FROM THIS… MORE OVER…(14)
另外 is similar 此外 and to 而且, but 而且 cannot be placed at the beginning of a sentence, unlike 另外and 此外.
Measure words (2)
Measure words are needed in the following situations.
How many teachers do you have?
The following two measures words are used in the text
míng 名 is used for members of an institution or major organisation, such as party members and university teachers: 两名大学老师 two university teachers.
gè 个 units of something. It is a common measure word for both abstract and physical objects such as people, schools, and ideas, as in 五个人 five people.
qĭ 起used as a measure word (9)
起 is a measure word for events and law cases.
rén (一) 人 ONE PERSON (15)
If a number word precedes the noun 人people, person, in written Chinese, measure words such as 个, 名or 位are not needed, especially in four-character expressions or other idiomatic expressions. For instance, 一家三人, a family of 3, 五人受伤, 四人死亡 five injured and four dead
rèn 任 (16)
任 is used for turns in office. For instance,
The 66th elected President of the US.
suŏ 所 (16)
所 is used for buildings. For instance,
wèi 位 (16)
位 is used for people and positions. For instance,
These 3 teachers are all teaching Chinese.
This university is in position number 5 on the list.
jŭdòng 举动 (16)
A measure word is not necessary when 举动 is preceded by 一, for instance, 这一举动 this action.
Modal verbs yīnggāi 应 该, néng 能 (1)
Modal verbs are used to express obligation, feeling, intention, permission and capacity, and can be placed before main verbs of sentences. For instance,
may I play after school?
(You) shouldn’t play after school
jiāng 将 used as a modal verb (8)
将 can be placed before a main verb or co-verb to indicate that the action will take place in the future. 将 is often used in written Chinese. For instance,
China is about to announce a piece of important news.
决定can be used as a modal verb, to be followed by another verb. For instance,
I have decided that I would like to go to China to travel.
The aspectual 了is not used in sentences which contain modal verbs such as决定 and 开始.
mŏu…某 CERTAIN… (7)
某is used to disguise a real name, as in 李某: although the surname 李 Li is revealed, the given name is hidden. 某 can also be followed by a noun: 某校 a certain school, 某人 a certain person. 某医院 a certain hospital.
…nèi内 WITHIN (10)
When 内 implies within, it is placed at the end of a clause. The clause can be the duration, numeral or place. 内is often preceded by 以 or 之. For instance,
Within 10 days.
bèi 被 used as a passive construction (7)
被 sentences describe how a particular object (abstract or physical) is dealt with or disposed of by somebody or something. The verbs in these constructions take complicated forms. They are verbs of method of action, plus other elements. Most of the elements attached to the main verbs in 被 sentences are similar to those used in the 把 construction:
Time/action measure: Resultative complements
All our energy has been put on work by us.
The book has already been taken into (a room) by him.
得 (complement of degree) constructions
This job hasn’t been done very well by you.
一下 (or 一 verb); 三个星期; 一次; 一遍
This exercise has been done once more by you.
被 制 止 WAS STOPPED (15)
When 被 is placed before a verb it makes it passive. For instance, 被打 … was beaten. 被骂 …was told off. 被批评 … was criticised. 被解雇 …was sacked.
yóu 由the passive construction (8)
The passive construction with 由 is different from the passive construction with被. The 由construction is unlike the 被 construction, as the agent cannot be omitted. However, a verb in the 由 construction is a simple one, and has no attached element as the 被 construction does. For instance,
This meeting is being chaired by the Minister of Public Security.
qí 其 ITS, THEIR (8)
The 其 clause is used when its noun have already appeared in the previous clause. For instance,
The Chinese government has launched an anti-drug campaign. Its aim is to control the spread of AIDS.
qíshí其 实 ACTUALLY, IN FACT (14)
其 实 (Lit. THIS IS THE REALITY) is used as an adverb in sentences.其 实 can be placed before a verb or a noun. For instance,
Lao Wang is actually a good person.
… qíyú 其 余 REST OF … (10)
其 means its, 余 means surplus. 其 余 is an adverb and is often followed by a verb. For instance,
Two of our classmates have gone home, one is in the library and the rest have gone to the pub.
…qízhōng 其 中AMONG WHICH; IN WHICH (6)
The 其中clause is preceded by another clause which describes a general situation. The 其中clause often contains number words or phrases which imply quantity. For instance,
There are very many students in our university, of whom 500 are male and 600 are female.
…quán …权 …RIGHTS OF… / POWER (8)
人 权 human rights
主 权 sovereignty
Question words 什 么, 怎么 (1)
The question word 什 么 refers to a noun, which is often the subject or object of a sentence, as in
What textbooks do primary schoolchildren study?
怎 么 is used to ask how something is done. It should be placed before verbs, as in
How do you do your housework?
shàng… 上 REACH (10)
When 上 is used as a verb, one of its meanings is to reach. In this usage, 上 is followed by a numeral unit over ten as in 上 百 reach hundreds. 上 万 reach ten thousands.
shènzhi(yú) 甚至(于) SO FAR AS TO, EVEN (14)
于 can be omitted in the 甚至 construction. 甚至 is similar to 连...都 in meaning. It is an adverb and can be placed either before a noun or before a verb.
In 连...都 sentences the emphasis is on the noun or the verb-object phrase which follows 连. However, 甚至 can either refer to a noun or to the degree of an action:
Even our teacher finds Chinese difficult.
He drove so fast that the car was flying. The 连...都 construction cannot be used in the above sentence.
使 CAUSE MAKE (SOMEBODY DO SOMETHING)
使 is a verb which cannot be followed by a noun, but by a noun + its verbal clause, as shown in the following pattern:
Xiao Li doesn't want to eat. This has made his girlfriend very worried.
Learning Chinese characters gives me a headache.
He always makes the teacher angry.
TheＡclause can be a pronoun in 3, a v-o pattern in 2 or a sentence in 1, but all the Ｂ clauses in the above three sentences have verbal elements.
…bring the relationship of both sides even closer.
suīrán … dànshì 虽 然 …但… ALTHOUGH…(15)
This construction has two clauses. The first clause begins with虽 然 although, while the second clause begins with 但是 but or however. Both虽 然 and 但是 can be placed before a verb or a noun. For instance,
Although we are all learning Chinese, some of us have been doing well and some haven’t.
suízhe 随着 ALONG WITH…, IN THE WAKE OF… (13)
随着 is placed at the beginning of a clause. The 随着clause is followed by a main clause of a sentence as in
Along with the deepening of the development of China’s economy, the standard of living is also improving day by day.
When 所is used as an adverb and is placed before a verb which is then followed by 的and a noun, the stress is on the noun. For instance,
Our position on European defence, in which we take a leading role, is that…
Stative verbs 多, 好 (1)
When an adjective is used as a predicate, such as to be + adjective, we label it a stative verb.
This textbook is very good
The adjective 好 is used as a stative verb. The linking verb to be 是 is not used in Chinese. For instance,
There are very many Chinese schoolchildren.
Time clause when… …de shíhòu …的 时 候 or …shí …时 (3)
… 的时 候 is used to form a time when clause. The description of when is placed before 的. For instance,
When I arrived at my teacher’s home…
The 时 clause is an abbreviated form of … 的时候. The clause above can also be written as follows:
When I arrived at my teacher’s home…
Time phrase and place phrase (1)
Time phrases and place phrases are placed before the main verb in a sentence. For instance:
We will hold a meeting at the teacher’s home at midday.
wéi为 TO DO (16)
为 can also be used as a verb, as in formal style of writing, for example,
为人之所不敢为 。 Do the things which other people dare not to do.
未means not yet, and it is similar to (还) 没 有. 未 is used in written Chinese, and it is followed by a verb, modal verb or co-verb. For instance,
China has not joined the WTO yet.
Verb complements (6)
zài 在 used as a verb complement.
Verb complements indicate the results and directions of actions. The complements are placed after verbs of action. For example,
Spread through countryside
Set up in Beijing.
Resultative complements (16)
When 到 is used as a resultative verb it means to reach or to obtain. For instance, 接到 to get hold of something. 接means to receive, and 到 means to obtain. 买 到 to get hold of something by buying.
When 为 is used as a resultative verb it means to become… and is followed by a noun
当选 为 校长 to be elected as a head of school.
xìng 性 NATURE OF... (5)
The use of 性 is often seen in formal written Chinese. 性can change a stative verb into a noun, and can also change a noun into an attributive adjective. 重要 to be important is a stative verb. If it is followed by 性, then it becomes a noun 重要 性 importance. 历史 means history, and 历史性 means historic.
重要 used as a stative verb
This matter is very important.
重要 used as a noun
What is the importance of this matter?
历史 used a s a noun
This is history.
历史used as an adjective
This is a historic reform.
yīn…因 BECAUSE (7)
因is short for 因为. A 因为 clause is often followed by a 所以 therefore clause. Both 因 为 and 所 以 are placed before subjects or verbs in sentences. A因clause is often followed by 而clause. For instance,
He was arrested because he had taken drugs.
The 因…而… construction is used in written Chinese. It is similar to 因 为… 所 以 … The 因 clause is followed by a clause which expresses a cause or reason, while 而 is followed by a clause which express an outcome. For instance,
They were arrested because they had been making anti-China speeches.
yí ge bú zhùyì一 个 不 注 意 A SLIGHT MISTAKE … (14)
This expression is used as a conditional clause, and is followed by a clause of consequence. For instance,
In the class, if (we) lose our concentration slightly, we won’t understand what the teacher says.
yĭ 以 (1)
以 is placed before position words such as before 前, after 后, within 内, out 外, above 上 and below下 to indicate the time or position of the phrase before 以. For instance,
After going back home
yĭ(A) wéi (B) 以(A)为 (B) REGARD (A) AS (B) (10)
In this construction, 以 means to use, to take and 为 means to be as. Literally this construction means to take (A) as (B). Both (A) and (B) are nouns or pronouns. This is similar to the 把 construction, but is used in written Chinese. For instance,
Follow his example.
In the spoken language 把 is used and this would be 把 他 作 为 榜 样.
以 AS. (11)
It is used as a co-verb in the following sentence. Its meaning is similar to 用, 用 名 义 use the name (title) of… The description of the name in the following sentence is placed before the marker 的.
Came to visit in the capacity of Director of the Shanghai City Social Work Association.
以 SO THAT…, IN ORDER TO…(11)
The 以 clause contains the outcome and is often placed after the clause which contains the action leading to the outcome. …
Both sides should establish the 3 links as soon as possible, so that (unnecessary) travel time will be saved.
…yĭlái …以来, SINCE (16)
This expression is used to form time clauses, as in
Since Liberation, many intellectuals have been labelled mistakenly as “rightists”.
yĭmiăn 以 免 SO THAT TO AVOID … (14)
The first clause of a 以 免 sentence indicates an action, while the second以 免clause indicates an outcome which should be avoided. For instance,
We eat more fruit and vegetables in order to avoid heart disease.
yŏule 有了+ N
The nouns preceded by有了 can also be used as verbs, such as a 发展development / develop 进步 progress提高 increase 改善 improvement / improve.
yú 于 BE IN, ON, AT
于 is used in a formal style of writing and is followed by a time word or place. It is similar to 在. For instance,
The meeting starts on 16 March.
…yú 余 OVER (10)
余 also means surplus. When 余 is preceded by a numeral over 10, its meaning is similar to 多: over, more. For example:
Over a hundred people.
yu 与: A与B作 斗争 (6)
与AND. It is used as a conjunction or co-verb. For instance,
China carried out diplomatic negotiations with the US.
yù 欲 HAVE DESIRE TO…(13)
It is used as a verb in written style. 欲 is followed a monosyllabic verb such as
Have desire to be China’s…
yuèláiyuè 越来越 INCREASINGLY, TO BE GETTING BETTER OR WORSE (13)
This construction should always be placed before stative verbs and before adverbs in the complement of degree construction:
It's getting colder. [stative verb]
The train is increasing its speed. [adverb of the complement of degree construction]
yuè…yuè… 越...越... THE MORE...THE MORE..., THE LESS…THE LESS…, THE MORE…THE LESS…, THE LESS…. THE MORE… (13)
The conditional clause following the first 越 shows the extent of the feeling, state or action; the second 越 clause shows the result. 越 should always be placed before the verb, stative verb or adverb:
The more you study Chinese the more difficult it gets.
The more you beat the children the better they will become.
zài 在clause (5)
The 在 clause is important. It can help you to find the main verbs, subjects and objects of sentences. The 在 clause often appears before adverbs, verbs and the attributive clause, (the 的 clause). The 在clause is often seen in the following forms: 在... 上, 里 or 下 (a clause for an event, place and situation) and 在...时(a time clause.) Let’s take out all the 在 clauses in the following sentences.
The main verb is 强 调.
The main verb is说.
表 现is the subject of the sentence.
The main verb is 发 表.
活动is the object of the sentence.
zài…xià 在 …下 clause UNDER… (2/13)
This clause is often placed before the main verb of a sentence. For instance,
All the primary schoolchildren passed their secondary school entrance exams.
在 can be omitted in the 在 …方 面 sentence pattern as in (在)儿童图书方面… on the subject of children’s books…
…zé …则 (9)
则 is used an adverb meaning then, and is often placed before a verb in the second clause of a sentence to indicate an outcome of action. 则 is often seen in four character expressions. For instance,
If one does not move forwards, then by implication one will move backwards.
…zhàn 占ACOUNT FOR (6)
In this usage, 占is followed by a clause which contains numbers. For instance,
The Han population accounts for 90% of the total population in China.
…zhe … 着 construction (8)
The particle 着 is placed after a verb to imply that the action is underway. For instance,
The head of this ministry bears an important responsibility.
…zhĕ noun + 者 (3)
者 PERSON, PEOPLE. It is often in the form of V/N+者. It means the people who do a certain kind of job:
People who are engaged in education work
zhèng + V 正 + V ( )
正 (在) is placed before a verb to indicate that an action is under way. The progressive construction takes the following forms.
We are learning Chinese.
正 PRECISELY (16)
When正 is placed before 是 it implies emphasis. 正是is similar to 就 是is precisely…正好just right.
…zhīyī …之一 ONE OF… (6)
之is used similarly to 的. 之一 means one of, and is placed at the end of a clause. For instance,
He is one of the greatest leaders of our country.
…zhì noun + 制 (3)
制 SYSTEM. Short for 制 度 (zhìdù). 制 is often placed after a noun or short phrase which modifies a type of system:
National health-care system
周is similar to 星期 or 礼拜which can be followed by a number words as in
周…is only used in formal writing styles. For instance,
The discussion meeting (seminar) is booked to be convened on Wednesday.
However, if 周is preceded by a number word, 周 becomes a measure word. For instance,
zhìyú 至 于 AS FAR AS …. IS CONCERN, CONCERNING… (14)
This expression is often seen in written style and is similar to the colloquial expression对 …来 说. 至 于 is placed at the beginning of the topic concerned. For instance,
As for China joining the WTO, it will depend on the approval of the member states of the WTO.
zìcóng…自(从 )… (以)来SINCE (6)
自(从 ) is used to indicate a point in time in the past; (以)来 extends the time to the present. The elements which are placed between 自(从 ) and (以)来 can be a word, phrase or sentence. Either 自(从 ) or (以)来 can be omitted. For instance,
Since the 70s…
The phrase can also be written in the following ways:
zŏngzhī 总 之 IN CONCLUSION, IN BRIEF (14)
总 之 is short for 总 而 言 之. This expression is placed at the beginning of a sentence. For instance,
Xiao Wang want to go to China and Xiao Li would like to go to Britain. In brief they would all like to go abroad.
zuì最 MOST (2)
This is placed before stative verbs or adverbs such as
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