The 地 Construction
Other terminology: adverbial marker, adverbial modifier
Also included: the uses of 一点儿 and 一些; and the differences between 得 and 地.
When you want to describe how the action is carried out, 地 can be used. In other words, 地 is used to describe the manner, mood or method of the action.
Modal verbs and negations should be placed before adverbs. An adverb in the 地 construction should always be placed before 地, which will then be followed by the verb.
s. neg. mv. adv. 地 v. o.
He is doing his exercises diligently.
He doesn't study very seriously. (He studies in a very casual way.)
The teacher should give lectures conscientiously.
Short phrases can also be placed before 地 to describe how actions are carried out:
s. neg. mv. short phrase地 co-v / v. o.
The little girl sings very loudly.
They are laughing and walking while they are talking.
Xiao Wang said to me, word by word...
1. A monosyllabic adverb should be duplicated, meaning that 慢 (slow) will become 慢慢(儿)地. The duplicated word should be pronounced in first tone when it is followed by 儿(Beijing accent), with the stress on the duplicated word. If 儿 is not used, the duplicated word should be pronounced in the same way as the original one:
Please walk slowly.
Write it properly.
2. A di-syllablic adverb in the 地 construction can also be duplicated for emphasis according to the following pattern: AB → AABB.
(He) goes to school very happily. (He goes to school in a very happy mood.)
No, not always. Some adverbs, such as 多(more), 少(less), 快(quickly), 慢(slowly), 早(early) and 晚(late) can be placed before verbs without using 地. They don't have to be duplicated, and are used mainly for imperatives.
You should do more and say less.
You should speak more Chinese. .
Quickly! Run! Look, it's going to rain!
Phrases indicating quantity such as 一点儿 (a little bit) and 一些 (a little bit) can be used in these sentences as follows.
Patterns Examples in Chinese Meanings in English
As you can see from these examples, 一点儿 refers to quantity or results when 多,少,快,慢,早 and 晚 are placed after verbs. When 多,少,快,慢,早 and 晚 are placed before verbs , 一点儿 refers to the manner in which something is done.
You come to school early tomorrow. (Manner)
Yes, 了 for completed actions is used in 地 constructions.
Xiao Li conscientiously wrote Chinese characters for three hours yesterday.
Directional complements and complements such as 到 (directions and attainment), 给 (to [person]), 在(at, in, on) and 走(away) can be used in the 地 construction, but potential complements cannot be used.
He very quietly took away my briefcase.
Mr. Wang came into the classroom half running.
The 地 construction should be placed before 把 and after 被 and its agents,
Mr. Wang has carefully hung that Chinese picture on the wall.
That letter has been very carefully read by him once through.
Strictly speaking, they are not interchangeable. The main difference between these two constructions is that the adverbs in 地 construction describe the manner, mood or method in which the actions are carried out; but the adverbs in the 得 construction are the degree or result of the actions and sometimes they can refer to the objects of sentences, e.g., 他吃饭吃得很多 the adverb 很多 refers to 饭. The emphasis in the (地) sentence "A" is very much on how he ate the meal. In other words, the stress is on his manner of eating the meal, but the result of that might not be necessarily very fast. The "B", (得) sentence implies that he only took very little time to finish the meal. Let's see another example:
He has grown very tall. (Tall is the result of growing.)
But one can't say
X他 很 高 地 长X
One can't have a manner, mood or method of being “very tall”.
Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
1. One by one, Mr. Li put all his teacups on the table.
2. He gently opened the door and walked into the bedroom.
3. She slowly opened her eyes and said very quietly....
4. "Come here quickly!" Mr. Wang shouted loudly.
5. He always does his homework in a hurry.
6. These children always eat properly. / Can you eat properly?
7. The shop assistants always serve their customers thoughtfully.
Exercises on 地 and 得.
Fill in the following gaps with 地 and 得.
1. 古波今天早上不高兴,因为昨天晚上睡 不太好.
2. 他整天楼上楼下 跑.累 不得了.
3. 小王迟到了.他不好意思 对老师说:"对不起..."
4. 这个句子他翻译 不太清楚.
5. 我总是累.可能我休息 不够.
6. 她非常客气 对我说:"菜不好.请你们多吃点儿."
7. 帕兰卡的中国民歌唱 不好听.
8. 一本书就五十块.怎么卖 那么贵?
9. 丁老师看见我们来了,就高兴 说:"欢迎,欢迎,请进,请进."
10. 真累!今天晚上我要舒舒服服 睡一觉.
11. 你知道这封信的意思吗?怎么写 那么不清楚啊!
12. 她坐下来,慢慢 跟我说:"小王..."