Passive without 被 让 叫 给
Other terminology: Passive in English not in Chinese / Notional passive
When you want to describe how something is dealt with or disposed of without mentioning the agent (a noun which carries out the action)
fàn chī wán le zì xiĕ cuò le
饭 吃 完 了. 字 写 错 了.
MEAL EAT FINISH LE CHARACTER WRITE WRONG LE
The meal has been eaten. The character has been misswritten.
Yes, there are some differences. The sentences without 被 have less sense of a passive voice than the ones with 被.
饭吃完了and字写错了can be used as the first clause of "verb了,就..." sentences as in 饭吃完了就睡觉. As soon as (he) finishes (his) meal, (he) goes to bed. 字写错了就哭. As soon as (he) makes a mistake in writing characters, (he) cries.
They can also be used in emphatic sentences as in (我们)饭吃完了,可是还没喝酒呢. We have finished the MEAL, but we haven't drunk the wine yet.
The following elements can be used for this construction:
1. Resultative complements
2. Directional complements
3. Potential complements
4. Complement of degree (the 得 construction)
5. Time measures and action measures
The book has been completed.
The table has been moved in.
The trousers cannot be found.
The character has been beautifully written.
The lesson lasted for an hour.
The text was read through once.
Yes, the 是...的 construction can also be used as passive to describe how something is done by somebody without mentioning the result of the action. In other words a simple verb is used in the是...的 construction. 是 is often followed by 由. In these constructions the agents (the nouns which carry out the actions) should not be omitted,
s. 是 (由) agent v. 的
This book was written by Mr. Li.
The meal is cooked by him.
The differences are that the verbs in 被 sentences need other elements, but those in 是...的 sentences don't, and that the agents in 被 sentences can be omitted, but they cannot be omitted in 是...的sentences.
It is important to identify what kind of passive sentence it is before you start to translate the sentence into Chinese. You should ask yourself the following questions:
1. Is it a passive without the agent? (Notional passive)
2. Does it just tell you that the action is done by somebody? (是...的)
3. Does it tell you the degree of the action and the agent? (被 )
Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
1. The picture is hanging too low, and it can't be seen.
2. That letter was written by Mr. Ding.
3. That car has only been driven for two months: it is an almost new car.
4. The TV. in my room has been taken upstairs.
5. The shop door is open. We can all go in.
6. These characters are written by a very famous Chinese artist.
Can the following sentences be changed into the 被 sentences?