Comparatives 比, 跟/像...一样...﹐比起来....
Other terminology: Comparison, preposition 比; 比字句.
The following are the most commonly used comparatives.
1. ...比... ...sv. than... Used to compare two objects or two actions, in order to show that one is more or less superior, 他比我高. He is taller than me. 我比你学得好. I study better than you.
2. ...不比... ...not sv. than... Negative form of 比, as in 他不比我高. He isn't taller than me. 他不比我学得好. He doesn’t study better than I do.
3. 有 ...as sv. as...Usually used in comparative questions to compare A (an object or action) against B, 你的书有我(的)多吗? Do you have as many books as I do?
4. 没有... not as sv. as... Negative form of 有, as in 你的书没有我(的)多. You don't have as many book as I do.
5. ...跟...一样... ...as same as...Used to show that two objects or actions are in the same state, as in 中国大学跟英国大学一样好. Chinese universities are as good as English universities.
6. ...跟...不一样.../ ...不像...那么... not the same as... Negative form of 跟...一样..., 今天跟昨天不一样热./今天不像昨天那 么热. Today is not hot like yesterday.
7. ...跟...比起来... Compared with... Used to show one's preference: 英国菜跟法国菜比起来, 我喜欢法国的. I prefer French food to English food.
8. 更or 还 even (more/less). Used to express A is even more .... or less ... than B is. 更and 还 can be used with the 比construction, 他的汉语比中国人的汉语更/还好. His Chinese is even better than Chinese people's. If you use a stative verb in the first clause and place 更 or 还 要 before the stative verb of the second clause, 比 can be omitted. For instance, 中文比 英 文 更/还（要）难. Chinese is even more difficult than English. Or 英文难, 中文更/还（要）难. English is difficult, but Chinese is even more difficult.
9. 最 most/least. Used to express the highest degree of quality or quantity, 在世界上,中国的人口最多. China’s population is the largest in the world.
If you want to compare two objects, the superior noun should be placed before 比. A stative verb should be placed at the end of the sentence:
English is more difficult than Chinese.
很,真,太 and 非常 are not used in 比 sentences. Instead 得多 or 多了 can be placed after a stative verb or an adverb in a 比 sentence to indicate very much more or less...],
English is much more difficult than Chinese.
If you want to specify the amount in the comparison, for instance, if you want to say how much more A is than B, then the number word and the measure word should be placed after the stative verb, as in:
This books has three pages more than that book.
The 比sentences can also be used to compare two people's capabilities or intentions. Modal verbs such as 想, 要, 喜欢 and 会 or verbs which imply thinking and feeling such as 了解, 注意 and 关心 are used in this construction. The word for 多 [more] is not used in this construction, but 更 [even] can be used. It should be placed before a verb or modal verb:
He likes to eat Chinese meals more than you do.
He knows how to enjoy life even better than you do.
I am more homesick than you.
Wang knows even more about China than I.
If you want to compare two actions, the complement of degree (得) can be used. 很 (very much) is not used in this construction, but 得多 or 多了(very much) should be placed after adverbs. There are three possible sentence patterns for this construction:
He eats (very much) more than I.
He eats (very much) more than I.
He eats (very much) more than I.
If a number word and a measure word are used when you want to compare the difference in quantities between two actions. In this case the adverbs 多,少,早, or 晚 should be placed before the main verb and 快 or 慢 should be placed after the main verbs:
He has learnt 3 years more of Chinese than I have.
You ran two minutes faster than I did.
有is usually used in questions to compare one object or action against another. The negative form of 有 is 没有, which can be used in a statement. Stative verbs and the complement of degree (得) are used in this construction:
Is Chinese as difficult as English?
He doesn’t write Chinese characters as well as I do.
...跟...一样/...像 ...一样 are used to indicate that two objects or actions are in the same state. A stative verb is not necessarily used:
He speaks Chinese as fluently as Chinese people do.
He speaks Chinese like a Chinese person.
The negative forms are ...跟...不一样/不像 ...那么...,
Xiao Wang is not the same as Xiao Ding.
Xiao Wang doesn’t compare with Xiao Ding in his love of study.
Chinese doesn’t approach Japanese (in degree) of difficulty.
. ...跟...比起来 is used to show a preference:
I prefer Chinese food to Japanese food.
1. 有 sentences imply that in comparing A to B the speaker already acknowledges the nature of B. For instance, 英文有中文难吗? Is English as difficult as Chinese? The speaker already thinks Chinese is difficult. A 比 sentence doesn't have this implication.
2. 有 sentences can only be used to compare one object to another or one action to another, but they can't be used to express the specific degree, as 比 sentences can:
xiăolĭ bĭ xiăo dīng dà liăng suì
小 李 比 小 丁 大 两 岁.
XIAOLI BI XIAO DING BIG TWO YEARS
Li is two years older than Ding.
有 cannot be used in the above sentence. One cannot say: Ｘ小李有小丁大两岁.Ｘ
The negative form for 比 sentences is normally 不比. That is because the stative verbs and 得 sentences, which are used in 比 sentences do not take 没. However, 没 can be used if the verb of the sentence can take the particle 了 for completed action:
tā bù bĭ wŏ máng tā bù bĭ wŏ zhăng de gāo
他 不 比 我 忙. 他 不 比 我 长 得 高.
HE NOT BI I BUSY. HE NOT BI I GROW DE TALL
He is not busier than I. He is not taller than I.
Neither 忙 busy nor the 得 de construction in the above sentences take the negative aspective 没, so 不 is used:
xiăowáng méi bĭ xiăo zhāng duō chī liăng wăn fàn
小王 没 比 小 张 多 吃 两 碗 饭.
XIAO WANG NOT BI XIAO ZHANG MORE EAT TWO BOWL RICE
Xiao Wang didn't eat two bowls of rice more than Xiao Zhang.
The affirmative form for the above sentence would need the particle 了 for completed action. 没 should be used for its negative form.
Strictly speaking, they are not the same. In colloquial Chinese they may be occasionally interchangeable:
ta lai de mei you ni zao
他 来 得 没 有 你 早.
HE COME DE NOT YOU YOU EARLY
He did not come as early as you did.
tā bù bĭ nĭ lái de zăo
他 不 比 你 来 得 早.
HE NOT BI YOU COME DE EARLY
He did not come before you did.
(He might have come at the same time as you did, or later.)
1. Stative verbs, or the 得 construction, must be used in 有 sentences, but they are not necessarily used in ...跟...一样... sentences:
zhè ge zì gēn nà ge zì yíyiàng ma
这 个 字 跟 那 个 字 一样 吗?
THIS GE WORD GEN THAT GE WORD SAME MA
Is this character the same as that one?
You cannot say: Ｘ这个字有那个字吗?Ｘ
2. 有 sentences are normally used in questions and suggestions, but ...跟...一样...sentences do not have this restriction.
像 means to be like, and 跟...一样... means the same as.... The word order for both constructions is very similar in the affirmative forms, e.g.,
哥哥跟弟弟一样聪明. / 哥哥像弟弟一样聪明. There is however a difference in the negative forms. The negative 不 should be placed before 一样 in the 跟 construction, but 不 should be placed before 像 in the 像 construction. 那么 or 这么 (so...) should replace 一样 in the 不像construction, but 这么 and 那么 are not used in the 不跟 construction:
哥哥 不 像 弟弟 那么 聪明
OLDER BROTHER NOT LIKE YOUNGER BROTHER SO CLEVER
The older brother is not as clever as his younger brother.
哥哥 跟 弟弟 不 一样 聪明
OLDER BROTHER AS YOUNGER BROTHER NOT SAME CLEVER
The older brother and the younger brother are not of the same intelligence.
The following sentence patterns show how different degrees of 聪明 and the construction of complement of degree.
Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
1. Xiao Ding is older than Xiao Wang, but Xiao Ding is smaller than Xiao Wang.
2. Mr. Zhang doesn't run as fast as I do, but he walks as fast as I do.
3. This year's students study much better than last year's did, and they also know more than last year's did.
4. Jingshan Hill in Beijing is very high, but the hills in my hometown are even higher.
5. From here to the Iron and Steel Engineering Institute is 8 miles further than from here to the railway station.
6. Lesson 44 has 15 more new characters than Lesson 45 has, but Lesson 45's grammar is a little bit more difficult than Lesson 44's.
7. Yesterday he came 8 minutes earlier than I did, but today he came 5 minutes later than I did.
8. If he can't answer that question well, we can only do it worse!
9. Your watch is about 5 minutes slower than mine. No wonder (难怪 nán gài lit. difficult to blame.) you came 5 minutes later than I did.
10. He pays even more attention to his health than his girlfriend does to hers.
11. Mr. Ma knows much more about Chinese landscape painting than my teacher does.
12. On Sundays I prefer sleeping in at home to getting up early and going to the park.