Other terminology: the complement of direction; 趋向补语
Directional complements are: directional words such as 上(up), 下(down), 进(in), 出(out), 回(back), 过(cross over), and 起(up), [see table].
To run into the classroom.
To put down your book.
There are two verbs which can indicate the speaker's positions. One is 来(to come), which describes an action moving towards the place where the speaker is, and the other one is 去(to go), which describes an action moving away from the place where the speaker is, [see table].
He has brought a cup of tea.
He has borrowed a camera.(The camera is not with the speaker.)
Directional words + 来 or 去, can form a combined complement which indicates both the direction of the action and the speaker's position.
He has brought in a cup of tea.
The following table is for combined directional complements.
起 can only be combined with 来.
The combined directional complements in the above table can be used as the main verbs of sentences.
wŏmen huí qù ba.
我 们 回 去 吧.
WE BACK(AWAY) BA(SUGGESTION)
Should we go back?
Use the full version of directional verb complements when you want to indicate the direction of the action, e.g., up (上), down (下)..., and the speaker's position, e.g. towards the speaker (来), away from the speaker(去).
tā zŏu jìn lái.
他 走 进 来
HE WALK IN (TOWARDS) [The speaker is inside.]
He comes in.
Directional verb complements should be placed after the subjects of sentences as normal verbs are. The negatives 不, 没 and 别 should be placed before the main verbs. neg. v. + compl
nĭ bié zhàn qĭ lái
你 别 站 起 来.
YOU DON'T STAND UP
(You) don't stand up!
The particle "了" (for completed action) can be placed either after the main verb (method of action), or at the end of the sentence if a sentence has no object.
s. v. (了) complement (了)
He has run up.
If the particle "了" is placed at the end of the sentence, it can also indicate a change of situation.
If a sentence has an object, 了 should be placed after the directional word, or at the end of the sentence.
s. v+complement (了) o. 去 or 来 (了 )
He has run upstairs.
3. The particle "着 " should only be placed after the main verbs of method, but not verbs of direction,
s. v. 着 complement
He went up running.
过 can only be placed after 来 or 去 .
s. adv. v + complement o. 去 or 来 + 过 (了)
The tea has already been taken upstairs.
A simple object, such as a noun without a number word and measure word; a noun without a descriptive clause; and in particular an object which is a place word e.g., 家, 学院... should be placed in the middle of a combined complement.
s. v. complemnet simple o. 去 or 来
She walked into the room. (The speaker is in the room.)
Normally a complex object such as a noun with a number, measure word or a descriptive clause can be placed after the combined complement 去 or 来 .
s. v. + complex complement o.
She took out a very beautiful picture.
If 来 or 去 is placed after a complex object, it usually implies that the sentence is not finished. 来 or 去 sometimes refer to a second clause in a sentences.
s. v.+ complement o. 去 or 来 second action
She took out a very pretty picture to show everybody.
1. Translate the following sentences into Chinese.
1. Could you take those shirts in please? Look, it's going to rain.
2. Could you come over here and tell me what you have just said?
3. What should we do? The door is locked. We can't go in.
4. I've brought you a cup of tea. Don't work too hard. Have a rest.
5. Should we climb up to the top of the hill? From there we can see the whole city.
6. Get up! Look, what time it is!
7. Xiao Ding came down from upstairs and said to me very happily...
2. Place the following nouns into the sentences below.
学院, 山, 教室, 上海, 小王的家, 楼, 一封信.
1. 我们走出 ____ 去 ____ .
2. 丁云跑下 ____ 来 ____ .
3. 我们上 ____ 去 ____ .
4. 他们回 ____ 了 ____ .
5. 老师把书拿进 ____ 来 ____ .
6. 他们把钱送回 ____ 去 ____ .
7. 昨天我给他寄回 ____ 去 ____ .