Other terminology: complements of result, resultative verbs, 结果补语.
Resultative complements indicate results of actions and they are placed after verbs of action. These words can also be used as verbs or stative verbs in sentences. For example,
chī wán kàn dŏng
吃 完 看 懂 (完 and 懂 can be used as verbs.)
EAT FINISH READ UNDERSTAND
To finish eating. To understand sth. by reading it.
jì gĕi tā fàng zài zhuō shàng.
寄 给 他 放 在 桌 上 (给 and 在 can be used as co-verbs)
POST TO HIM PUT ZAI TABLE ON
To post to him. To put on the table.
shuō qīngchu fàng hăo.
说 清楚 放 好 (清 楚 and 好 can be used as stative verbs)
SPEAK CLEARLY PUT PROPERLY
Speak clearly. put it (away)(down) properly.
When you want to indicate the result of an action, a resultative complement is placed after a verb of action.
tā niàn wán zhè bĕn shū le.
她 念 完 这 本 书 了。
SHE READ FINISH THIS BEN BOOK LE
She has finished (reading) this book.
tā xué huì kāi chē le.
他 学 会 开 车 了。
HE LEARN MASTER DRIVE CAR LE
He has mastered the skill of driving.
He has learnt how to drive a car.
When a sentence describes an active action, the combined group (verb + resultative complement) is placed before the object.
s. neg/adv v.+ complt. o.
Xiao Li didn't understand this word. (By reading it)
Xiao Li read this word, but he couldn't understand it.
If a sentence has a direct and an indirect object and its resultative complement refers to the indirect object, then the direct object can be placed at the beginning of the sentence, or the 把 construction should be used. [See the "把" construction.] The commonly used complements for this type of sentence pattern are: 成, 到, 给 or 在,.
dir.o. s. adv. v.+ complt. indir.o.
I've posted the letter to China.
The particle "了" for completed action is used when it is necessary, even if the complements 完 and 好 which mean completion, are applied. (See "了" for completed action.) For example:
wŏ chī wán (le) fàn le.
我 吃 完 (了) 饭 了。
I EAT FINISH (LE) MEAL LE
I've finished eating my meal.
The words in the following table are the regularly used resultative complements.
What is the difference between 在 used as a co-verb and used as a complement, as in 在中国生活and 生活在中国？
Resultative complements should be used in the following sentences.
1. He has translated that novel into Chinese.
2. Mr. Li wrote that character wrongly.
3. Would you like me to enlarge (放) this photo for you?
4. I went to many bookshops, but I still couldn't get hold of that book.
5. I've removed your TV set to the sitting room.
6. Nowadays nobody wants to buy tea sets. I've got ten tea sets in the shop, but I haven't got rid of them.
7. Yesterday Mr. Wang spoke so fast, I couldn't understand a word.
8. This morning I answered Mr. Li's question correctly.
9. Look at your clothes. They are so dirty. How can I wash them (clean)?
10. I've already handed in my homework to Mr. Li.
11. Put your ticket away properly, and don't lose it.
12. Have you mastered verb complements (动词补语)?
13. What did you say? I didn't hear.
14. Could you open up your suitcase please?
15. Could you write your sentences clearly? I've found your handwriting difficult to read.
16. Have you got anything for me to eat? I'm starving to death.
17. I have finished tidying up your study. How much are you going to pay me for it?
18. Don't sit on the table.
19. Yesterday I went to the canteen too late, so I didn't have any supper.
20. Can you remember all the characters that you learnt this term?
Can you tell the difference between the following paired words?
1.看/看见 2.找/找着 3.听/听到? 4.卖/卖掉 5.借给/借到
1. Multiple choices
Please note: it is important that one should learn and practise resultative, directional and potential complements before starting the following exercises.
A 我 今 天 就 能 看____这 本 书 。
1 得 完
B 请 您 把 茶 拿____给 老 王 。
4 过 去
C 我 听 了你 刚 说 的 话， 可 是 没 听____。
4 出 来
D 小 王 把 卖 字 写____买 了 。
E 我 们 已 经 说 了 这 个 问 题 可 是 没 说 ____。
1 清 楚
昨 天 我 们 学____第 几 课 ？
1 起 来
2 Fill in the gaps. All the following sentences must be translated into English.