A reporter from Xinhua News Agency is interviewing an UN officer at its Economic and Social Council regarding aspects of globalization.   

C: 在全球化进程中,许多国家的生活条件得到了改善,然而受益最多的却是那些先进国家和少数的发展中国家,您认为主要的原因是什么呢?

U: Low-income countries have not been able to integrate with the global economy as quickly as others. This is partly because of their policies and partly because of factors outside their control.

C: 有人认为全球化增进了贫困和不平等,对这个问题您是怎么看的呢?

U: Taking education and life expectancy into account, the picture emerges actually suggests that the gap may have narrowed in the long-term. However, it is also noticed that the quality of life for many has not improved, which has brought new urgency to policies specially designed to alleviate poverty.

C: 还有人认为全球化也会使先进国家的工人的利益受到损害,比如说对非技术工人的需求量减少,因此造成失业率的增加。

U: Changes from industrial economy to more service-oriented and shift toward more highly skilled jobs would be taking place with or without globalization. In fact, globalization is actually making this process easier and less costly as a whole. Economic growth, employment and living standards are all higher than they would be in a closed economy.

C: 对于穷困的国家来说,他们的经济如何才能赶上来呢?

U: Countries with a strong growth record, pursuing the right policies, can expect to see a sustained reduction in poverty. And if pro-poor policies are pursued, then there is a better chance that growth will be amplified into more rapid poverty reduction.

C: 您认为在全球化的经济背景下,发达国家应该如何帮助那些贫困国家?

U: I think advanced economies can make a vital contribution to the low-income countries efforts to integrate into the global economy by promoting trade, encouraging flows of private capital and by supplementing more rapid debt relief